Synthesis and details is not a new skill, but it’s not one that I remember focusing on a lot when I first started teaching first grade.
Synthesis is all about teaching students how to take in new information in a way that helps them create new learning.
Teachers have been doing synthesis activities through research for forever, we may have just been calling it something different.
This is a skill that is easiest for first graders when you are reading non-fiction texts, but it can really be covered in a variety of different ways!
What do First Grade students need to know about Synthesis & Details?
Synthesis (or to synthesize) is “to combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole” (TEKS Resource System).
Basically, synthesis is how students absorb and combine new information they have learned with information they already knew to build their knowledge on a topic.
First grade students should be able to synthesize information to create NEW understanding.
Synthesizing information includes:
- asking and answering questions about the text
- illustrating or writing about the text
- examining graphic features and text structures
- identifying details and determining their importance
- making connections between details n the text and prior knowledge
Teachers can help students with synthesis and details by:
- Modeling their thinking during a read aloud
- Discussing the impact of details from the text on overall learning
- Asking questions like:
- “What were the important details you read?”
- “What did they make you think?”
- “What new ideas did you come up with based on what you read?”
- Encouraging students to answer in sentence stems like “First I thought ____, now I’m thinking ____”
How to Introduce Synthesis & Details for First Grade
If you teach lower elementary, then you know that there is SO much that goes into the comprehension of a book. First grade students are learning so much at this age and even listening comprehension requires their little brains to work so hard.
Why do I bring this up?
Because I want you to think about how hard they are ALREADY working when they are listening to a read aloud and when you use a mentor text to introduce a NEW SKILL, most students’ brains go into overload!
So what should we do instead?
Start with a non-text activity. Let me introduce you to a new kind of “slideshow”.
I like to use interactive slideshows/powerpoints. My slideshows always follow this order:
- Teaching Slides: Introduces students to WHAT the skill is
- Guided Practice: Introduces students to HOW to apply the skill
- Interactive Practice: Gives students an example and allows them to PRACTICE the skill in an easy and concise way
Synthesis Non-Text Activities for First Grade
After we practice the slideshow, then we practice building our synthesizing muscles with some guided and independent practice using a NON-TEXT ACTIVITY such as a station game.
Non-text activities are a HUGE asset to first grade students because it allows them to build and flex their synthesizing muscles before we ask them to apply those skills to a text!
How to Complete the Activity
We will do this activity together as a group first, then it will move into our guided reading stations where students will complete it independently!
I've found the best and easiest way to do this is with images of text features that my students see in their nonfiction books every day.
My students do this What is the Feature? activity (seen on the right). We do one together as a class for guided practice.
For this activity, students draw a text features card. Students must draw what they see on the card, write the name of the text feature and explain why the author would use that text feature in a text.
After we do this activity together, it goes into their stations for Guided Reading.
The best part about this activity is that you can leave it out for several weeks because each time students can choose a new set of pictures!
Mentor Texts for Synthesis and Details for First Grade
A mentor text is an incredibly powerful tool for teaching reading comprehension skills!
The problem that many teachers run into with mentor texts is that there are SO MANY different skills you can teach with the same mentor text….
Sometimes we try to do TOO MUCH and we overwhelm our students!
Let me introduce you to a Comprehension Focus Question (CFQ).
A CFQ is one question that you focus on through the entire text!
It simplifies things for you and your students. (more on that later)…
But let's take a minute to dispel so myths about mentor texts..
A mentor text is NOT a book that you read once and put it away.
A mentor text is a book that you read once, then refer back to again and again and again.
The greatest benefit of a good mentor text is that after you have read it once, when you refer back to it, you aren’t reading the entire book again, you are simply referring back to one or two pages.
It will save you SO much time.
AND students are already familiar with the story line meaning that already have a foundation for whatever comprehension skill you are about to dive into!
How to Boost Comprehension for Predictions
Comprehension Focus Questions
As I mentioned, a Comprehension Focus Question (CFQ) is a very focused and intentional comprehension goal for an activity, a week or even a unit.
If you have done your research and you understand your learning standard, the vocabulary and what students need to know…
Then it becomes very easy to choose a goal (or a comprehension focus question).
But, why do you need a comprehension goal?
To stay FOCUSED!
Not just for you, but for your students also!
Let’s look at an example. Let’s say that this week you are focusing on how to make an inference. Well, there are about a hundred different ways you can make an inference and a CFQ allows you to focus on one area at a time.
Example CFQ: “How Did The Character Change From ___ To ____?”
In this comprehension focus question, you and your students are focusing in on the characters of the story.
The great thing about CFQ’s is that the next time you pull out this mentor text, you can choose a different CFQ to focus on while still practicing how to make an inference!
Another great strategy that falls right in long with mentor texts and comprehension focus questions is sentence stems.
A sentence stem is a phrase that your first grade students will use to answer a comprehension question.
Sentence stems are designed to get students to answer comprehension questions more fully rather than giving one word answers.
Sentence stems encourage students to explain their thinking.
I like to have a list of sentence stems next to my table that are specific to each comprehension skill. I stick to one or two stems per skill for the entire year because I want my students to be consistent. (This also makes it a lot easier for them)
If we are sticking with our Make an Inference example, I would use the following sentence stems:
I Think ___ Because____.
I Read This ____ So I Think _____
Synthesis & Details Activities for First Grade
All of the activities that you found in this post, both printable and digital, along with UNIT LESSON PLANS can be found in my Synthesis & Details Bundle here.
You can save up to 20% by purchasing the items together, but you can also purchase individual items to better fit your needs!